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Thread: The "How To Guide" Leading To DIY Enthusiasm's

  1. #76
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    Types of Wood


    (Cutesy of Frank Campbell @sawdustmaking.com)

    The materials for most projects will fall into three categories: softwood, hardwood and manufactured panels such as plywood.
    What you use for any given project depends on various factors: strength, hardness, grain characteristics, cost, stability, weight, color, durability and availability.
    Usually beginning woodworkers start out with a softwood such as pine. It's soft and easy to work so you don't need expensive tools to get good results. It is readily available at local lumberyards and home centers. It has it's limitations in furniture making, it is a soft wood and will damage easily.

    Softwood Lumber

    Softwood is from an evergreen or coniferous (cone-bearing) tree. Common varieties are pine, fir, spruce, hemlock, cedar and redwood. These woods are mostly used in the home construction industry. Cedar and redwood are excellent choices for outdoor projects, while pine is often used for "Early American Country Style" furniture.
    Pine and most other softwoods will absorb and lose moisture more than hardwoods so are not as stable. Purchase the lumber at least two weeks before starting your project and keep it indoors. Place stickers (small pieces of scrap wood) between the boards to permit good air circulation around each piece of stock. This will allow the wood to reach an equilibrium with the indoor environment which reduces the likelihood of dramatic wood movement after a project is complete.

    You will generally find only two grades at most suppliers: select and No. 2 common. The common grade allows tight, solid knots in the face of the board. For furniture applications the select grade is the better choice as it is free from most knots, though tight pin knots and small resin pockets are allowed.

    You can achieve a more uniform stained surface by applying a wood conditioner to pine first, it's a good idea to run a test first on an inconspicuous part of your project to make sure you're happy with the results.
    You will find that softwoods are sold in standard thickness and widths, for example a 1 X 4 will be 3/4" thick and 3 1/2" wide similar to construction materials. The material will usually be priced per lineal foot and the price will increase accordingly for the wider boards.
    Panels made from strips glued together and sold as shelving are also available, these range from 12 to 24 inches wide and 2 to 8 feet in length.

    Hardwood Lumber

    Hardwood lumber comes from deciduous trees, the ones that shed their leaves annually. Popular domestic species are oak, maple, cherry, birch, walnut, ash and poplar. Of these common native hardwoods, only red oak and poplar are usually stocked in home centers and lumberyards, the others have to be obtained from speciality stores. The material stocked at home centers and lumberyards is usually sold in similar dimensions to softwood and by the lineal foot as well.

    At speciality stores the thickness of hardwood lumber is specified in quarters of an inch, measured when the wood is in a rough state. The thinnest stock is 4/4, representing 1 in., and the thickest usually available is 16/4, representing 4 in. Rather than being milled to specified dimensions, like pine, hardwoods are sold in random widths and lengths.

    Hardwoods are sold by the board foot, which is defined as a square foot of rough lumber that is 1 in. thick. If a board is thicker than 1 in., the dealer multiplies the square footage by the thickness to arrive at the sale price. An 8/4 board will therefore cost twice as much as a 4/4 board of the same size.

    Working with hardwoods is quite different from working with pine, you cannot drive a screw through hardwood lumber without first boring a pilot hole. Cutting and planning hardwoods requires extremely sharp tools
    Oak and ash, are known as open-grain woods.
    These species have alternating areas of relatively porous and dense wood, when stained the open-grain areas absorb the color readily while the harder areas are more resistant. This accentuates the grain patterns, creating a dramatic effect.

    Cherry, maple and birch are closed-grain woods, demonstrating a more uniform texture throughout a board. Poplar is also a closed-grain wood, but its color ranges from a beige to olive green, and often has purple highlights thrown into the mix. Because of this unusual coloration, it is rarely used if a furniture piece is going to have a clear finish. This wood is best when stained or even painted. Poplar, being less expensive, is also a good choice for framing hardwood projects

    Plywood and Manufactured Sheets
    You will likely be working with either plywood, consisting of an uneven number of alternating layers of wood, or a type of manufactured sheet.
    Plywood and manufactured sheets often come in thicknesses that actually measure thinner than standard dimensions, for example a 1/4" router bit will be too wide you will need a 15/64" bit to cut a dado to fit it.

    The two most common manufactured sheets goods used in furniture making are MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard) and Particle Board. Both are made from wood particles, combined with glue and bonded under pressure. MDF has finer particles than Particle Board so produces a smoother and stronger finished product.

    MDF machines very well and is often used for molded components on painted furniture. Its main draw back is that it is a very heavy product compared to real wood. (Vs side note input wear a dusk mask when cutting, fine glue/dust particles combining with your lung tissue cant be good for you)

    Hardwoods are also commonly used as outer veneers on manufactured sheets. These veneers are extremely thin sheets of wood that are glued to a panel core of plywood or particleboard. Such panels are usually 4'x 8' sheets, but they are available in other sizes, for example Baltic Birch is sold in 5' widths. Their thicknesses range from 1/8 inch to over 1 inch.

    Because of their laminated construction, they are extremely stable in all dimensions. Since the veneers on any given panel are usually cut sequentially from the same log, the panel should display a uniform color and grain. Matching the grain pattern of solid wood to the generally uniform grain pattern on the panels can be difficult. But careful planning can yield good matches in the most visible areas of your project.

    Manufactured sheets do have limitations, whenever they are used, regardless of the core, the edge must be hidden and the veneers on the surface are extremely thin, often less than 1/32 in. Because of this, the surface is fragile and has a tendency to split out, especially on the back side of a saw cut. Also, since the veneer is so thin aggressive sanding can quickly work through the veneer and expose the unattractive core underneath.



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  2. #77
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    Common wood sizing chart




    Last edited by V; 01-12-2010 at 02:32 AM.



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  3. #78
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    well, thats some great information, have a read and if anyone has any further of questions we'll be happy to answer them .
    It also just saved me quite abit of time, as im personally working on the following info sections.



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    Glass




    Glass, well we use it for building aquariums, but what is it exactly?

    Glass is a silica rich fusion of elements that make up an amorphous solid. The definition of an amorphous solid is any non-crystalline solid in which the atoms and molecules are not organized in a definitive lattice pattern.

    To put that into perspective, plastics and gel forms also fit into this category. Ironically this is what also gives rise to its grey classification type, because its not actually a gas, liquid or solid.
    Im happy to call it an amorphous solid, its easy to remember because of the commander of the Nebuchadnezzar in the matrix.

    Glass has been around since time itself, naturally forming in volcanic rich environments with rock contents high in silicates or when ever lighting strikes a beach. In both instances its the copious amounts of heat that act as the catalyst.

    There have even been discoveries of Egyptians deploying an impure & brittle use of glass as far back as 1200BC.
    Since that time we have perfected its manufacturing & deploy it on almost every project in every corner of the globe.

    There are afew elements that go into making glass. The more elements that are added ultimately dictate the types of glasses produced, however the core ingredients still remain the same.

    Sand (silicon dioxide), sodium carbonate & calcium carbonate.

    The most common item you will hear in our hobby relating to glass is some ill fated attempts to drill tempered glass. The reason for this is simple; it will shatter into little pieces instantly leaving you with a sudden shock, & a massive clean-up.

    Just for the record, tempered glass is exactly the same as normal glass, however the only main differences is in the cooling process after it has been poured in mould formed. Normal glass is cooled rather slowly, where as tempered has an accelerated cooling process.

    The plus side to this is its greater heat, scratch & pressure related properties are vastly increased, not to mention it shatters safe in tiny bits instead of irregular dangerous shapes. Main draw back however- you cant drill it in cold form.
    If anyone wants to know more about different glass types, Im sure a simple internet search will reveal a list mile long.


    Glass cutters


    Whilst were talking glass, lets have a look at a standard glass cutting tool.

    These tools dont cut the glass per say, rather they score its surface for a follow up blunt snap that breaks along the fault line.
    A glass cutter has a rolling metal disk at one end, ultimately resembling a pizza cutting roller on a small scale. At the other end it usually has a weighted solid ball shape that can be used for taping the glass to entice it to snap and/or a few notches you can slide the glass into it to so a snap can be achieved via leverage.

    In most cases though this is not always necessary, once confidence is achieved after a few practise cuts, the use of solid scoring along a straight line device coupled with a quick snap with your hands is more than to enough.

    However never forget your safety equipment, gloves, safety glasses, ect, to be safe! Just like sharp blades, glass can be unforgiving if you dont treat it with respect.



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    Master Reefer SaltyDawg's Avatar
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    What might your thoughts be on which woods hold up best to humidity,salt creep,etc.. I've been building furniture for almost 20 years now and want to build a unique stand for my next tank. Putting it together is no problem but the effects of exposure to the elements I know nothing about.
    I'm thinking about a tongue and groove cherry, natural, just sealed and laqured or a golden oak stained tiger maple. Would hate to have it swell, split, warp etc. 2 years down the road.

  6. #81
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    hard wood for sure.
    there's no stress on that regardless, as long as you seal it with your clears quite effectively your laughing. Spray it & do multible layers.
    Im not a spray painter though, so i'll ask my mate if there is futher additives that can aid the super barrier your asking, however i think standard clears will be fine.



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    The World Of Silicone

    Much to see people, we’re walking, we’re walking &……. we’re stoping.
    Ok, so the next display is that of silicone. Glass would just be plain glass without it.

    I don’t have the chemistry degree needed to completely explain it, however I do run cheap 30cent tours for the super low price of 60cents. Hey….gota eat you know.

    The train is now leaving anyways, so please ensure you keep your arms & legs inside the vehicle at all times.




    Silicones......the beginnings of which stem from the findings of Swedish born chemist Jon Jacob Berzelius.
    By all accounts of history, this bloke was the true pioneer of the arts & definitely a major driving force behind many advancements of the era.

    Of his achievements in the field, his biggest breakthrough would be that of making the distinction between the organic & inorganic compounds in nature, thus spawning organic chemistry as we know it today.
    It would also be a crime not to mention his outstanding contributions in defining chemical notion sequences & atomic weights for the periodic table.

    Of all his discoveries however, (to which there were many), none are more relevant to the topic at hand than that of the identification of Silicone in 1823. He also takes the cake for a whole wad of coined terms we now take for granted such as the word Polymer. Actually, thats not a bad way to be remembered that’s for sure.

    Ensure your belt is fastened folks, because we’re quantum leaping forward some 120years into the future now – as surprisingly it would take this long before the world would witness the any significant leap in silicon advancements.

    The man responsible for this important breakthrough in sticky goo was none other than your American chemist James Franklin Hyde. At the princely age of 40, currently working for the Corning Glass company, his mission was simple - to find a new stable glass replacement for telescopic equipment.
    Little did he know at the time, but he was about to influence the world as we know it. Today almost every industry the world over utilises these important materials in some way, shape or form.

    This finding prompted a swift merger between the Corning Glass Works & the Dow Chemical Company. The merged entity Dow Corning Corporation mission objectives were simple; specifically create silicone products for export to the world.
    They currently have 26 manufacturing plants scattered through-out the globe & ultimately hold the bragging rights to the invention.

    So what is silicone, well as I said, you need a science degree to understand it properly, however the quick stab at it is as follows.

    Silicone is a man made polymer, or more specifically a Polysiloxanes. As I understand it, its basically a mixture of silicon, carbon, hydrogen & oxygen molecules that through the process of Polymerisation (chemical reaction that forms 3D networks or polymer chains. **Think necklaces**) produce the workable form we’re all familiar with.

    Once the compound is extruded by us onto our projects, it then under-goes another reaction with the moister content in the atmosphere. Typically, & based on ingredients of course, this reaction would produce hydrogen chloride. Problem is, once hydrogen chloride mixes with atmospheric moisture it starts converting to hydrochloric acids, which as we know, isn’t to friendly. This is why they have swapped out the chlorine atoms in the silane precursor chain, & replaced it with the non toxic acetic acid.
    That’s why is smells of vinegar on curing. Hope this kinda fills the voids anyways guys.


    Indepth look at Acrylics, Bulkheads, then into diamond cutting tools still, so still plenty to cover thats for sure. However im enjoying it.



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  8. #83
    Grand Master Reefer rroselavy's Avatar
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    Thanks V for the scrolling gobs of info coming from your noggin. Must've taken quite a while to prep this and I really appreciate the effort.

    As far as stands are concerned, this reefer at RC built what I think is a pretty amazing stand and shows step-by-step pics. His framing approach was similar to the pictorial V posted previously, but this is a smaller tank and thus a slightly less complicated structure. He used several coats of melamine to coat the inside and outside of the stand. Make sure to scroll all the way down to see the tile he covered the stand with. Well done.

    lastlight's 225 reef build - Reef Central Online Community

    I am planning a stand build in the next few days. I'll try to take progress pics if there is any interest.

    As far as silicone is concerned, it is commonly known that there are reef-safe and reef-unsafe varieties, and that some silicones are formulated to adhere glass to glass while others are better at adhering glass to plastics. Choosing the right siicone for the job is therefore essential.

    The following thread at NR (those Nano Reefers seem to do a lot of DIY) was started to discuss silicone products and their use in aquaria. The first post has a list of findings:

    Confused about Silicone for your DIY tank? - Nano-Reef.com Forums
    Last edited by rroselavy; 01-12-2010 at 10:04 PM.

  9. #84
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    Yeah, i can take some time, however if it helps im happy to keep doing it.
    Having abit of backstory always helps you remember things more as well in my opinion.

    Thanks for the links bud. ive looked at the silicon thread so far, i'll get to the stand build today. It was on page 1 that the main info was regarding products that are safe. Its mainly for you guys though, we've kinda got different product ranges.

    For ozzies re: Safe Silicons

    Rhodorsil V2 - Bostik Aust
    1 part acetic rapid cure RTV
    working temp - 50C to +150C
    Non porus marterials, use Z bond R40 first
    Cant apply to wet surfaces, Not to be Painted.
    Sealent will produce acetic acid untill fully cured, skin will form within 8 min, & 1-2mm/24hrs cure rate.
    minerial turpentine will remove uncured silicon
    strickly 12 month shelf life from date of manufacture.


    In regards to your stand project, indeed, please post it as soon as your ready, will love to read it.



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    That stand was pretty sweet, although whats the deal with RC, i noticed the tank builders name was removed, are they a bunch of soft c%#$s or what?

    The only thing i would do different, would be to add more horizontal base & top supports. maybe just spaced it by adding 2 in the centre space instead of the one.

    Pitty he chickened out on the vertical front centre support.

    great job though.



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    Grand Master Reefer rroselavy's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by V View Post
    That stand was pretty sweet, although whats the deal with RC, i noticed the tank builders name was removed, are they a bunch of soft c%#$s or what?
    Yeah, I am not sure what happened with the manufacturer name - RC is pretty sensitive about some things, but I have seen numerous mentions of tank manufacturers in other build threads. I am guessing that the tank builder was Aquarium Obsessed in Canada. They used to have an RC forum, but then it was yanked. Perhaps therein lies the answer.

    You do not find many makers who are willing to build that style of overflow. Pretty nice.

    The only thing i would do different, would be to add more horizontal base & top supports. maybe just spaced it by adding 2 in the centre space instead of the one.

    Pitty he chickened out on the vertical front centre support.
    He was worried about deflection, and to tell you the truth I would be to. Wouldn't you? The max span I would want to use with 2x4's is about 36". His initial idea was about a 48" span unsupported. I am not a fan of center supports either, but IMHO he should go to a 2x6 for 48" spans. Perhaps my instinct is overkill?

    I really like steel stands too, since the sections are so minimal, but they are hardly a DIY candidate unless you happen to have cutting/welding equipment in you garage. Hehe...

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    where he added the secondary legs were fine. Admittedly it is wood, so it can have some added flex based on actual meterial used, however i think it would have been fine if he added extra horizontal supports or 45 degree angles in each corner.

    mate, ive got just over 5ft viewing window on the bottom of mine.




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    anyone interested in grabbing the batton & doing an acrlic write up.
    I haven't gotten around to it yet.



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    Grand Master Reefer CarmieJo's Avatar
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    This is a good link to other DIY's. Aquarium DIY Plans Database
    Carmie


    Only disasters happen fast!





    Carmie's 54 Corner Tank
    Carmie's Cube


    Show people you value their advice! Click the STAR icon at the bottom of the post to add to their reputation.

  15. #90
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    thanks carmie, some decent content on that site.

    So who's next?



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    I'll get back to adding stuff as soon as i have the spare time guys. Meo has also got to do her LED light course on these pages, apart of the agreement my girl, its seems like months & you havn't come out to play ether.



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